பகவத் கீதை

भगवद् ग़ीता

Explanation & Commentary by

His Holiness Swami Paramarthananda, disciple of His Holiness Dayananda Saraswati studied Vedanta and Sanskrit under him for a period of three years at Sandeepany Sadhanalaya, Mumbai. After his studies and initiation he came to Chennai and started teaching Bhagavad-Gita, Upanishads and other Vedantic texts. He has been conducting several weekly classes in different parts of Chennai since 1978. He is well read in the sastras and is a great Sanskrit scholar. His talks are known for their clarity, simplicity and are an excellent guide for practical use of Vedantic truths in daily life. The Bhagavad-Gita described here is the transliteration of his popular lectures given at Bala-Vidya Mandir School in Gandhinagar, Adyar, Chennai - 20

Gita Dhyanam

ॐ पार्थाय प्रतिबोधितां भगवता नारायणेन स्वयं
व्यासेनग्रथितांपुराणमुनिनामध्ये महाभारतम्
।अद्वैतामृतवर्षिणीं भगवतिमष्टादशाध्यायिनीं
अम्ब त्वामनुसन्दधामि भगवद् गीते भवद्वेषिणीम्

Om parthaya prathibhothitham bagavada narayanena swayam
Vyasena grathitham puranamunina madye mahabaratham /
Advaithamrithavarshineem bagavatheemastadasadyayineem
Amba thvam anusandadhami Bhagavatgeethe bhavadveshineem // 1

Om - Om (The monosyllable, indicative of Supreme Brahman), parthaya prati bodhitam - with which Partha ( Arjuna ) was enlightened,baghavata - by the Lord, narayanena - Narayana svayam - himself, vyasena - by Vyasa himself, grathitam - incorporated, purana munina - by the ancient Muni, madhye mahabharatam - in the midst of Mahabharata, advaita amritha var shinim - the showerer of the nectar of Advaita, bhagavatim - the divine Mother, ashtadasa adhyayinim - in the form of eighteen chapters, amba - affectionate Mother, tvam - Thee, anusandadhami - I meditate, bhagavadgite - O! Bhagavad Gita, bhavadveshinim - destroyer of rebirth.

Bagavad Gita
is the essence of the entire Veda. It begins with nine Dyana Slokas; the author being Sri Madhusudhana Sarasvathi. He has also written a commentary on Bhagavad-Gita - Goodartha deepika - throwing light on hidden meaning.

Thro' these nine slokas he offers four `Namaskaras'- 1.Salutation to Bhagavad Gita, where Gita is personified as the Universal Mother (2 verses), 2. Salutation to Mahabharata as Bhagavad-Gita is an integral part of Mahabharata. (1 verse), 3. Salutation to Vyasacharya, - also known as Krishna Dwaipayana. He is the author of Mahabharata including the Gita. 1 verse 4.Salutation to Lord Krishna who taught Gita to Arjuna. (5 verses)

1. Gita Namaskar
: bagavat gite ambha thvam anusanthatami - Oh ! Mother Bagavad Gita, I meditate upon you and I offer my namaskars to you. What is the glory of the Gita? This is described in the first three lines. - Parthaya pratibothitam- systematically communicated or taught to Partha (Arjuna) - Pritha putra or Kunthi putra. Pritha means big hearted, generous. Arjuna was successful in the material front; but this did not help him at the time of crucial emotional challenge of loosing all his kith and kin in the Kurukshetra battle field. Hence he thought that he should strengthen himself. Emotional strength can be achieved only by Spiritual knowledge given by Bhagavata Narayanena - Lord Narayana himself, who is the Adi Guru. This knowledge was not taught by any ordinary local person; but by the Adiguru himself by taking the incarnation as Sri Krishna. Vyasacharya captured the dialogue between Sri Krishna and Arjuna - vyasena grathitam - incorporated by Vyasa, purana munina - who is an ancient sage having written many Puranas (18 puranas and 18 Upapuranas) in the middle of Mahabharata.-madye mahabharatham; Advaita amritha varsinim - showerer of the nector of Advaitha. The central teaching of Bhagavad-Gita is the knowledge of the ultimate reality behind the individual, the world, and the Sara - Jeeva, Jagat, and Iswara thatvam.That thatvam happens to be one and the same like the water which is behind the wave and the ocean. - The Advaita -non dual is infinite truth. This Knowledge is Amritham. It gives happiness and leads to immortality - freedom from fear of death and insecurity. - in the form of eighteen chapters - I meditate (anusandadhami) upon Amba - loving mother bhagavathi - divinity personified.- Sarasvathi Devi herself, who has to feed me with milk of Wisdom (Karmayoga - liquid Milk, Upasana Yoga - semisolid, Jnana Yoga - Solid food) This spiritual knowledge make me grow up inwardly. Bhavadvesinim - destroyer of birth, antidote or medicine for bhava (samsara) roga - constant struggle to become somebody else - emotional self dissatisfaction. Bagadvad Gita teaches us to be athmanyeva athmana thusta: We do not do anything for satisfaction but with satisfaction. This is called Liberation. Bagavad Gita is the only medicine for this. Daily we have to do parayanam of Bagavad Gita, Rudram, Purusha Suktam, Visnu Sahasranamam etc.
5th September 04

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Sarvopanisado gavo dogdha gopala nandanah /
Partho vatsah sudhir bhokta dugdham gitamrtam mahat //

Sarvopanishado - all the Upanishads, gavaha - the cows, dogdha - the milker, gopalanandana - Krishna, the cowherd boy, parthah - Partha, vatsaha - the calf, sudhihi - men of purified intellect, bokta - the drinkers, dugdham - the milk, gita - Gita, amirtham - nectar, mahat - the supreme.

All the Upanishads are the cows, the son of the cowherd is the milker; Partha (Arjuna) is the calf; men of purified intellect are the drinkers and the supreme nectar Gita is the milk.

The analogy given is symbolic. The entire Veda is pictured as cow. - Upanishado gavo. the milking man is gopalanandana - Krishna, the cowherd boy; Partha vatsah- Arjuna becomes the calf. And he is benefited as well as the men of purified intellect (by the teaching). The drinkers of this glorious Gita milk are the beneficiary - the beginners of life.

Mahabharata Namaskar

Mahabharata Namaskar
पाराशर्य सरोजममलं गीतार्थगन्धोत्क्टं
नानाख्यानककेसरं हरिकथासम्बोधनाबोधितम् ।
लोके सज्जनषट् पदैरहरहः पेपीयमानं मुदा
भूयाद्भारतपङ्कजं कलिमलप्रध्वंसिनः श्रेयसे ॥७॥

Parasarya vachah sarojam amalam gitartha gandhotkatam
Nanakhyanaka kesaram hari katha sambhodhana bothitham /
Loke sajjana satpadair aharahah pepiyamanam muda
Bhuyad bharata pankajam kalimala pradhvamsinah sreyase // 7 ii

Parasarya vacha sarojam - born in the lake of the words of the son of Parasara (Vyasa) amalam - spotless, gita artha gandha utkatam - sweet with the fragrance of the meaning of Gita, nana akhyanakakesaram - with many stories as its stamens, harikatha sambodhana bodhitam - fully opened by the discources on Hari, loke - in the world, satjana satpadaih - by the bees of good men, ahah, ahah - day by day, pepiyamanam - drunk, muda - joyously, bhuyat - may be, bharatapankajam - the lotus of the Mahabharata, kalimala pradhvamsinah - of the destroyer of the dirt of Kali ( to us ) sreyase - for the supreme Good.

May the taintless lotus of the Mahabharata growing on the waters of the words of Parasara (Vyasa), sweet with the fragrance of the meaning of Gita, with many a narrative as its stamens, fully opened (blossomed) by the discourses on Hari, the destroyer of the sins of Kali; and drank joyously day after day by the Bhramara (a kind of beetle like insect which lives solely on honey), of good and pure men in the world, become the bestower of good to us.

In this Dhyana Sloka, Mahabharatam is compared to a big Lotus - bharata pankajam (It is a metaphor - or figure of speech - here rupaka almkara.) parasarya vacha sarojam - growing in the words of the son of Parasara (Vyasa) Amalam - pure. Lotus is always pure. Mahabharata is also pure devoid of grammar mistake and deficiency in the meaning - Sabdha and Artha dhoshas. Gitartha gandha - the wisdom of Bhagavad Gita is like the sweet fragrance; uthgadam, - prominent .nanakhyanaka - many stories kesaram -filaments (stamens) hanging as in a flower; the stories of Lord Krishna expanded. Different people get different ananda from the Mahabharata stories. It is a Dharma Sastram; It gives the highest Vedantic teaching. If you go deep into it you can drink the Jnanam honey; aharahah - day by day; muda - joyously; pepiyamanam -drunk; kalimala pradhvamsinah - destroyer of the dirt of Kali; sreyase - for the supreme good.

Vyasacharya Namaskara

12 September 04
Vyasacharya Namaskara
नमोऽस्तु ते व्यास विशालबुद्घे पुल्लारविन्दायतपत्रनेत्र ।
येन त्वया भारततैलपूर्णः प्रज्वालितो ज्ञानमयः प्रदीपः ॥२॥

Nam `stu Te vyasa visala buddhe phullara vindayata patra netra /
Yena tvaya bharata tailapurnah prajvalito jnanamayah pradipah // 2 ii

Namah - salutations, astu te -be unto thee, vyasa - O! Vyasa, visala buddhe - of profound intellect, phullaravinda ayata patra netra - with eyes like the petals of a full-grown lotus, yena - which, tvaya - by thee, bharata taila purnaha - full of the oil of the Mahabarata prajvalitaha - lighted, jnanamayaha - consisting of wisdom, pradipaha - lamp.

Salutation to thee O! Vyasa of profound intellect and with eyes large like the petals of a full blown lotus, by whom the lamp of knowledge, filled with the oil of the Mahabharata, has been lighted.

Though Vyasa is not the author of Bhagavad Gita, he collected and compiled the teaching and incorporated the same in the Mahabharata. We are very grateful to Vyasa, because (otherwise) we would not have known what has transpired between Sri Krishna and Arjuna.
Let this salutation go to you - te- O Vyasa. The original name of Vyasa is Krishna Dwapayana. He got the name Vyasa, because he classified the Vedas into Rig, Yajur, Sama, and Atharvan Vedas. Vi + as = Vyas to classify - Vedavyasa. Visalabuddhe - one who has vast knowledge - another meaning is Mind-antakarana. One who has got generous mind to spread the knowledge to the whole universe; who is compassionate. Pulla - fully blossomed aravinda- Lotus ayatha- long patra -petal netra- eye .His eyes are beautiful like long fully blossomed lotus. By this description Madusudanacharya is really describing the inner beauty of loving character and compassion. Vyasacharya has made many contributions to the society and humanity- the most glorious one is the Mahabharata where in he has incorporated the Gita. Yena tvaya - by you; jnanamaya - consisting of wisdom pradipah - a huge lamp; lamp of knowledge, not a flickering light. Knowledge is compared to a lamp because it destroys darkness and illumines the object in front. To reach the destination of happiness and freedom, the journey requires a powerful lamp of wisdom to illumine the pathway. Vyasacharya is switching on the Baghavad Gita lamp. For lighting the lamp you require the Mahabharata oil -mahabaratha thailam. Through the Mahabharata story he is teaching us the lessons of life.

Krishna 1

Krishna Namaskara
प्रपन्नपारिजाताय तोत्रवेत्रैकपाणये ।
ज्ञानमुद्राय कृष्णाय गितामृतदुहे नमः ॥३॥

Prapanna parijataya totravetraika panaye /
Jnana mudraya krsnaya gitamrta duhe namah // 3 ii

Prapanna parijataya - the Parijata or the Kalpataru the bestower of all desires, for those who take refuge in Him, totra vetra eka panaye - who holds a cane in one hand, jnana mudraya - the holder of Knowledge symbol, krishnaya - to Krishna, Gita amritha duhe - the milker of the Gita-nectar, namah - salutations.

Salutation to Krishna, the Parijatha or the Kalpataru, the bestower of all desires of those who take refuge in him, the holder of the cane in one hand, the holder of Jnanamudra (the symbol of Knowledge) in the other hand, the milker of the Gita-nectar

Krshnaya namaha -
salutations to Sri Krishna. There are two meaning for the word Krishna. - Dark in complexion. The second meaning is one who attracts everyone towards himself - karshathi sarvaan iti Krishna ;derived from the root kris -to attract, to drag, to pull; in short one who has an attractive personality is Krishna. There is only one thing which attracts people - anandah. Krishna is Ananda Swarupa. He is capable of distributing Ananda to everyone. Black colour also absorbs all the seven colours. Therefore it does not throw out any colour. Krishna is sachidananda swaroopa.What are his glories? Prapanna parijathaya - Parijatham and Kalpatharu are celestial trees in the heaven. They are born when the ocean was churned. They will grant your wishes -`Wish yielding trees'.Sri Krishna will fulfill the desires of the entire humanity if you approach Him - our efforts must be there. Artha, Kama, Dharma and Moksha are our goals. He who is a Universal teacher will tell us all the ways of reaching the four goals. Totra vetra eka panaye - In the battle field Lord Krishna seated in the driver's seat of the chariot was teaching Arjuna holding the handle of the whip; in the other hand he was holding the Mudra or the symbol of Knowledge - Atmajnana mudra otherwise called Chinmudra. The index finger, called darjani touches or joins the tip of the thump called,angushtah. When you join these two fingers, they form a full circle without a beginning or the end - the other three fingers gets separated from the index finger.
The index finger represents the Jeevatma ahamkara - ego which is a threat to the society. This ego is associated with these three fingers representing the Satva, Rajas and Tamo gunas, and three avasthas and three sarirams.The Jeevathma is suffering from Samsara. Separating oneself from the 3 fold body is the Spiritual Life. Join with the Angusta, thumb which represents the Paramatma your own higher nature - sthula sookshma karanad vyathiristhaha, avasthatria sakshi, panchakosa vilakshana satchidananda swarupa is the Angusta,Thumb. All the four fingers can function only with the support of the thumb. It is the adharam.Like that God is also the adharam. The Jeevatma has to be joined with Paramathma - jeevatma paramatma ikyam When the index finger touches the thumb, it becomes a single circle. The circle has no beginning or end. It is purnah. It is sweet; I am happy and make other also happy. Gita amrutha duhe - by extracting and teaching to others. He is communicating and imparting Knowledge to Arjuna. He is milking the nectar of Gita from the Vedic cow. To that Krishna, I give my namaskarams.

Kr 2

19 September 04
Krishna Namaskara
वसुदेवसुतं देवं कंसचाणूरमर्दनम् ।
देवकीपरमानन्दं कृष्णं वन्दे जगद् गुरुम् ॥५॥

Vasudeva sutam devam kamsa chanura mardhanam /
Devaki paramanandam krishnam vande jagad guram // 5 ii

Vasudeva sutam - the son of Vasudeva, devam - god, kamsachanura mardanam - the destroyer, of Kamsa and Chanura, devaki parama anandam - the supreme bliss of Devaki ( mother of Krishna), krishnam - to Krishna, vande - I salute, Jagatgurum - the world teacher.

I salute Lord Krishna, the world teacher, the son of Vasudeva, the destroyer of Kamsa and Chanura, the supreme bliss of Devaki.

I offer my namaskaras to Krishna, who is the son of Vasudeva - vasudeva sutham; who is also the son of Devaki - devaki nandana, Destroyer of Kamsa and Chanura - Kamsa Chanura mardanam. Jagat gurum - who is the teacher of the whole Universe (thro Arjuna -reported by Vyasacharya). Here Madusudhana Saraswathi indicates the three glories of Sri Krishna. Firstly he gave supreme joy to Devaki; He gave ananda to his parents. The first and foremost duty of an individual is his duty towards his parents, family and society. Second glory is that he destroyed adharmic people like Kamsa and Chanura. and protected dharmic people. 3rd glory is that Krishna personally taught Arjuna and Udhava. By this Krishna has taught both the contemporary society and the posterity also. To such Sri Krishna I offer my salutation.

Kr 3

Krishna Namaskara
भीष्मद्रोणतटा जयद्रथजला गान्धारनीलोत्पला ।
शल्यग्राहवती कृपेणा वहनी कर्णेन वेलाकुला ।
अश्वत्थामविकर्णघोरमकरा दुर्योधनावर्तिनी ।
सोत्तीर्णा खलु पाण्डवै रणनदि कैवर्तकः केशवः ॥४॥

Bhishma drone tata jayadratha jala gandhara nilotpala
Salya grahavati kripena vahani karnena velakula /
Asvatthama vikarna ghora makara duryodhanavartini
Sottirna khalu pandavai rana nadi kaivartakah kesavah // 6 ii

Bhishma drona tada - with Bhishma and Drona as the banks, jayadrathajala - with Jayadratha as the water, gandhara nilotpala - with the King of Gandhara as the blue water-lily, salya grahavati - with Salya as the shark, kripena vahani - with Kripa as the current, karnena velakula - with Karna as the high waves, asvatthamavikarna ghora makara - with Aswathama and Vikarna as the terrible Makaras (a kind of marine animal), duryodhanavartini - with Duryodhana as the whirpool,sa - that, rana nadi - battle river, khalu - indeed, pandavaihi -by the Pandavas, utthirna - crossed over,(with) Kesava - Kesava, kaivartakaha - (as ) the ferryman.

In this verse one of the unique glories of Lord is brought out. - He is aapad bandhava - one who helps in crisis. Usually when there is crisis no body will help; but God invariably comes to your rescue. (But we may not think about Him). His help in the Mahabharata war is the proof. The Pandavas were facing a crisis as their army is comparatively small; and Duryodhana had the advantage of being the ruler. In spite of this tPandavas won the war because of the invisible grace of Lord Krishna. Madhusudana Sarasvathi visualizes the Mahabharata war as a huge flooded river having Bhishma and Drona as the banks (tada) Jayadratha as water whose depth cannot be measured, - gandhara nila utpala gandhara as dark rock or granite(another version - nila utpala - blue water lily). King of Gandhara is Sakuni. If a person gets trapped in the dark rocks he will be killed; so also with Sakuni, salya grahavati - Powerful king Salya is like a shark or crocodile; kripena vahani. - Kripa as powerful current. Karnena velaakula - Karna as high waves; Asvatthama, and Vikarna as the huge whale or fish; Duryodhana is the Whirlpool. Each of the above make the river dangerous and difficult to cross. Since Pandavas had an unique boatman, Krishna, they could cross the river with his Grace. Hence Bhagavan is the only person who can help us - apathbandava, artha trana, saranagadha vathsala. To such a god, Krishna I give our salutation.

Kr 4

Krishna Namaskara
मूकं करोति वाचालं पङ्गुं लङ्घयते गिरिम् ।
यत्कृपा तमहं वन्दे परमानन्दमाधवम् ॥८॥

Mukam karoti vachalam pangum langhayate girim /
Yetkripa tamaham vande paramananda madhavam // 8 II

Yatkripa - whose compassion, mukam - the mute, vachalam -(become) eloquent, karoti -makes, pangum - the cripple, (climb) girim - mountain, langayate - causes to cross, tam - that paramanandamadhavam - the All-bliss Madhava ( sweetest of the sweet) aham vande - I salute.

I salute that Madhava, the source of supreme Bliss, whose grace makes the dump eloquent and the cripple climb and cross the mountains.

With the grace of the Lord one can achieve any thing; mukam - a dumb person becomes eloquent; pangum, the cripple can climb and cross the mountain. We think that it is difficult to get Moksha living with the six evils - kama, krodha, lobha, mohah, matha and mathcharyam. But with his grace we can climb the mountain of Moksha. When you are diffident and go on telling “I can not ,I can not ;then think of God - With his grace you will be able to say “I can, I can” He will change your attitude. I salute such Bhagavan.

Kr 5

Krishna Namaskara
यं ब्रह्मा वरुणेन्द्ररुद्रमरुतः स्तुन्वन्ति दिव्यैः स्तवैर्वेदैः
साङ्गपदक्रमोपनिषदैर्गायन्ति यं सामगाः ।
ध्यानावस्थिततद् गतेन मनसा पश्यन्ति यं योगिनो
यस्यान्तं न विदुः सुरासुरगणा देवाय तस्मै नमः ॥९॥

Yam brahma varunendra rudra maruthah stunvanti divyaih stavaiah
Vedaiah sanga pada kramopanisadair gayanti yam samagah /
Dhyanavasthita tadgatena manasa pasyanti yam yogino yasyantam na viduh surasuragana devaya tasmai namah // 9 II

Salutation to that God whom Brahma, Varuna, Indra, Rudra and the Maruts praise with devine hymns, whom the Sama-chanters sing by Veda and their Angas, in the Pada and Krama methods, and by the Upanishads, whom the yogis see with their minds absorbed in Him through meditation, and whose end of hosts of Devas and Asuras know not.

All the Devas - Brahma, Varuna Indra,Marutha - worship the Lord Vishnu through divyaih stavaih - various sthothras, hymns; vedaih- by Vedas; Sa ang padakrama upanisadaih - Even human beings glorify the Lord thro the four Vedas - pada karma represents various types of Vedic chanting. - Thro Upanishad. Samavedis glorify Him thro' sama gana.There are some seekers who understand that the real God is not an outside object; the real God is dwelling within us. The real Jnani discovers this by the practice of various methods -sravanam, mananam and nithidyasanam - sadanas. Real god is not a person because as an individual, he will be limited in dimension He is Anadi, Ananda, all pervading, formless. To such God I offer my salutation.


12 September 04
Introduction to Srimad Bhagavad Gita

With the blessings of the Lord and the entire Guru Parambara we will enter into the study of Bhagavad-Gita, which is the essence of ALL the Vedas. Bhagavad-Gita is a part of the Mahabharata consisting of 18 chapters and 700 verses. The contents of the Gita can be presented in very many ways; but we will see it in the following manner. The Gita talks about three basic principles to be remembered throughout the life; three lifestyle to be followed and three lessons to be learned.

The three basic principles are 1.One has to be responsible for one's life. He cannot wash off or hand over that responsibility to others including God. No body else can or will take responsibility for others life. - including the wife, children and the parent. So one has to equip himself for that. ALONE TO ALONE, ALL ALONE IS LIFE. Throughout the Gita Lord Krishna emphasizes this point - uddhareth athmanathmanam na athmanam avasadayed - one should uplift ones lower self by the higher self. Arjuna! I am willing to support you; but you have to do your duty yourself. 2. Self confidence thro' faith in God - The second principle is an extension of the first principle. When one has to take charge of one's life, the responsibility may appear heavy and frightening. Has he got the strength to face the various situations in life with limited physical, emotional and intellectual strength? Hence diffidence is inevitable. Hence Lord Krishna says that you should have faith in God to boost your self confidence. The real God, which is the inner strength, is within oneself. Understand God as ones' own inner internal resource. Hence daily in the morning practice auto-suggestion that I am confident of facing life with the help and grace of God. 3. Life of Values (virtues, ethics, moral etc) Virtue is psychological hygiene; without hygiene the body can never be healthy and strong. Psychological hygiene is important for emotional health and strength. Krishna himself highlights these virtues on several occasions. By violating values, one may get more money and luxury; but peace and happiness can not be gained without it. Value is dharma.

The three life styles that are to be followed in stages or grades. 1. A life of activity and contribution to the family, society and the world. Every experience in life has got a hidden lesson, both pleasurable and painful. But if I am not equipped, I will not be able to learn lessons from such experiences of life. This active life style of contribution and learning is the first life style. Krishna calls it Karma Yoga - an active life style of contributions, learning, growing, maturing, ripening, and getting refined. 2. The 2nd life style is the Life style of re-orientation. Sri Krishna calls it Upasana Yoga. In this life of re-orientation, I change my extrovert and outgoing mind towards myself. I have to turn my mind inwards suitable for self enquiry; otherwise I am not interested to find out who am I? What is our internal composition? What is in my mind? What are emotions? What is knowledge? The enquiry into all these is the Upasana Yoga. The 3rd life style is the life style in which one is no more bothered about the things outside. We have got a vast stretch of inner personality to study five Kosas; and turn our attention towards body, mind and intellect. Hence it is the inward journey of self enquiry, athma vichara, which we call Jnana Yoga. Hence the three fold life style to be followed is Karma Yoga Upasana Yoga Jnana Yoga.

The three lessons to be learned: 1.Jeeva Swarupam - Our real nature. Our Vedantic scriptures talk about an invisible, eternal inner reality within oneself called Athma. Knowing this inner truth is lesson number one. 2. Iswara swarupam - The real nature of God who is behind the external phenomena called the world. We will be learning from Gita, that the World is nothing but a drama, which is taking place in the reality called Isvara tatwam. 3. The truth of the individual and the truth behind the whole creation - Jeeva thatwam and Iswara thatvam. The Jeevathma and Paramathma are one and the same - like ocean water and the wave water are one and the same. If we successfully go through and assimilate these three lessons, our life's mission will be accomplished. After fulfillment and poornatwam we will attain Moksha. This is Gita Sara.

Any scriptural teaching - Gita, Upanishad, Veda - cannot be grasped, if we study them by ourselves. (Self study). Hence they should be studied under the guidance of a proper guide, Guru. The teaching should come as a Guru Parambara. There is a method for teaching. It comes as a dialogue between a Guru and Sishya. We call it samvada - healthy constructive dialogue. It is not argumentative done with the aim of defeating the other person with ego. In dialogue light is generated - Guru Sishya samvada. In the Gita also the same method of teaching is followed. The student who receives the teaching is expected to think over it for better understanding. In Sastric teaching assimilation is not an automatic process. In the course of study doubts are bound to arise. The Guru will clear them by the method of dialogue. The same method is followed in the teaching of Gita. Hence Bhagavad-Gita is also in the form of a dialogue between a Sishya - Arjuna and a Guru - Sri Krishna.

Before the dialogue takes place, the student has to go through certain stages indicating that he is ready to go through the teaching. .Student should have certain qualification for listening. The guru also requires certain qualification for communicating the teaching - srothriya brahma nishta is the qualification for the teacher. He must have the comprehensive, doubtless knowledge about the subjects, he is going to teach. He should also have the skill of communication - srothrium. He should also follow what he teaches. Student should also have basic qualification and desire to acquire the knowledge. He should also have the conviction about the utility of that knowledge,
Generally the Guru and Sishya are brought together through a story or anecdote. The story is the indirect method of prescribing the qualifications of a teacher and the taught. The story may be a fact or fiction or a mixture. In Bhagavad-Gita also the first chapter happens to be such a story-akyayika - Mahabharata battle. Through the battle field event, Vyasacharya introduces the teacher - Sri Krishna, and the student - Arjuna. The actual teaching starts from the 11th verse of the 2nd Chapter.
3 October 04

Human beings look upon peace and happiness as the destination to be attained in the future. Vedas declare that peace and happiness are not products which are to be generated in future. They are to be discovered as a natural state of mind available ALL the TIME.
How to discover that - by living a proper way of Life. This proper way consists of two things. - Right action. Dharma and right Knowledge - Vidya, AthmaJnanam. The entire Vedas have got only these two topics. The first portion is called Veda purva which deals with right action namely dharma the other portion is called Veda antha which deals with right knowledge. When ones' life is governed by dharma and jnanam, then peace and happiness becomes ones natural state. Emotional slavery is one of the big obstacles in following this way of life. Emotional slavery is an obstruction to proper thinking as in a person who has consumed liquor. His intellect is not sober enough to understand what dharma is; and then a ruler has to resort to that course where violence is the dharmic duty. Vedas say Learn to handle your emotional personality, keep your discriminative power bright and active, and follow a proper way of life. Then you will be able to discover peace and happiness as a natural state of mind. This is the basic teaching Krishna gives to Arjuna. In the battle field, Arjuna is overwhelmed by emotion and looses his discriminative power and is utterly confused, loosing sight of proper action and knowledge. Lord Krishna helps him out and gives him the knowledge of dharma and jnanam. (Hence every chapter ends with the words iti Srimad Bhagavadgitasu Upanishatsu Brahmavidyayam Yogasastre Sri Krishna Arjuna samvate yogonama..adhyayah) Gita has two main aspects - brahma vidya (right knowledge) and yoga sasthram (right action or dharma).

In the Mahabharata, The Kauravas were adharmic; Pandavas were dharmic people, who were asking for their legitimate right in a non violent manner. But Duryodhana refused to oblige. Non-violence is given a great value in our culture. According to our scripture non-violence has not got an absolute value. One has to try the non-violent methods like Sama, dhana, and bedha first. If they fail then it is perfectly right to take to danda- violent method also to preserve and protect dharma. When war is required to protect preaching of non-violence. At that time it (war) is dharma. In the first Chapter we are going to see how Arjuna had dharma in his mind in the beginning of the war; but slowly he becomes a slave to (emotional) attachment of his kith and kin. Because of this misplaced attachment he preaches Ahimsa in the wrong place, where himsa is his duty. Lord Krishna corrects his vision. This is the background of First Chapter.
Conversion: 8 June 2012
Time: 8h, 3h
wiki: Bhagavad Gita
source: hinduonline.co
source: arshaavinash.in